Descriptive Title: Proportion of population within 1/4 mile of a public recreation facility
Geographic Unit of Analysis: Point
|Percent of population within 1/4 mile of a recreation facility (2010)|
|Neighborhood||Percent of population|
|Financial District/South Beach||21%|
|Golden Gate Park||NA|
|South of Market||26%|
|West of Twin Peaks||45%|
Both the number of neighborhood parks in proximity to one's residence and the types of amenities at the park (i.e., lighting, sports fields) predict the duration of physical activity in children.a One review of studies showed that access to places for physical activity combined with outreach and education can produce a 48 percent increase in the frequency of physical activity.b Access to community recreational facilities also provides a space for social engagement, which may promote the development of social networks and social cohesion in a place. Children who live in close proximity to parks, playgrounds, and recreational facilities tend to be more active compared to children who do not live near those facilities.c Adolescents who engage in moderate physical activity five or more times a week are more likely to achieve an ‘A’ in math and science than their peers.d Finally, an analysis of data from 2,134 women in five states found that the density of fitness facilities in an individual’s zipcode predicted their body mass index. The study estimates that an additional fitness facility per 1000 residents in ones zipcode is associated with a reduction in BMI of 1.39 kg/m2.e
The percentage of population within 1/4 mile of a community recreational facility is calculated by dividing the total population within 1/4 mile of a community recreational facility in a specific neighborhood by the total population in that neighborhood.
Facility buffers were visualized using shading to indicate the type of facility. Because there may be multiple types of facilities at one address, not all facility types at a single location may be visible on the map due to buffers overlapping.
Recreation facilities run by the San Francisco Recreation and Park Department (SFRPD) can generally be broken down into six different types of facilities, described below:
The SFRPD generally breaks down their facilities by magnitude of services into five levels; however, the service levels of the facilities visualized are not indicated here.
Always a school facility - however, due to recent budget cuts, they no longer staff such facilities.
A facility with latchkey and/or afterschool programming operating 20-40 hours.
Typically a clubhouse with a field or some outdoor area with latchkey and/or afterschool programming operating 54-74 hours.
A clubhouse with multiple fields and perhaps lights operating 74-79 hours.
A large recreation center with a gymnasium or auditorium, lights, multiple fields operating 74-79 hours.
Source: San Francisco Recreation and Parks Department.
The terms open space and parks and recreational facilities are used interchangeably by different agencies and organizations. There are many different types of open space including Flagship Parks, Regional Parks, Neighborhood Parks, Undeveloped Open Spaces, Civic Squares and Plazas, Greenscapes, Mini Parks, Greenbelts, Rec Center or Clubhouse Grounds/Athletic Fields and Sports Courts, Lakes, Future Parks, Stairways, Specialty Parks, Golf Courses, Breathing Room, and Usable Parks. For more detailed definitions, please visit: http://www.sfneighborhoodparks.org/pdf/publications/Table10.pdf.
In August 2004, the San Francisco Parks and Recreation Department released a Recreation Assessment Report. The report provided summary recommendations based on community and staff focus groups, citizen mail and phone surveys, program and facility assessments, service area mapping, and development of vision, mission, goals, strategies, tactics, and performance measures. The five key goal recommendations from the report included:
The full report is available at: http://sfrecpark.org/RecreationAssessment.aspx
Proximity is not the same as access. Many factors affect access to recreational facilities including cost, hours of operation, the presence of major roads, highways, buildings and gates, perceived and actual safety, quality of facilities, transportation, cultural preferences, etc. This indicator, 1/4 mile proximity to a recreational facility, is just one element of many in assessing access to recreational facilities.
List of recreation facilities from San Francisco Department of Recreation and Parks, 2008.
Population: 2010 US Census
Map and table created by San Francisco Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Section using ArcGIS software.
Table data is presented by planning neighborhood. While planning neighborhoods are larger geographic areas than census tracts, census tracts do not always lie completely within a planning neighborhood. SFDPH used ArcGIS software and a dasymetric mapping technique to attribute Census block group data to residential lots. We then assigned residential lots to planning neighborhoods to calculate Census population totals within the neighborhoods.
Bauman A, Bull F. Environmental Correlates of Physical Activity and Walking in Adults and Children: A Review of Reviews. London: National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence; 2007.
Nelson MC, Gordon-Larsen P. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1281-1290.
Mobley LR, Root ED, Finkelstein EA, et al. Environment, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk in low-income women. Am J Prev Med. 2006;30(4):327-332.