Descriptive Title: Gross per capita water use

Geographic Unit of Analysis: County

Table 1: Residential water consumption by zip code (FY2013-2014)
Zip code  Total Annual Residential Consumption (CCF) ACS 2009-2013 population Average Daily Residential Consumption (gpd) Average Per Capita Residential Consumption (gpcd)
94102 831,524 25,881 1,704,055 66
94103 693,310 23,907 1,420,811 59
94104 -- 211 -- --
94105 -- 5,553 -- --
94107 -- 27,856 -- --
94108 291,392 13,709 597,154 44
94109 1,463,945 55,519 3,000,085 54
94110 1,392,435 72,128 2,853,538 40
94111 -- 3,496 -- --
94112 1,630,270 82,726 3,340,937 40
94114 821,163 31,397 1,682,822 54
94115 964,737 33,782 1,977,050 59
94116 1,021,625 45,157 2,093,632 46
94117 876,554 41,568 1,796,335 43
94118 904,172 40,292 1,852,933 46
94121 996,827 42,104 2,042,813 49
94122 1,340,288 57,369 2,746,672 48
94123 627,418 24,500 1,285,777 52
94124 835,687 35,309 1,712,586 49
94127 589,567 19,576 1,208,209 62
94129 -- 2,787 -- --
94130 -- 2,654 -- --
94131 653,296 26,908 1,338,809 50
94132 825,221 31,080 1,691,138 54
94133 583,944 27,970 1,196,685 43
94134 965,938 38,815 1,979,511 51
94158 -- 5,219 -- --
San Francisco 19,909,092 817,473 40,800,000 49
EN.1.c Water use

Why Is This An Indicator Of Health and Sustainability?

Maintaining an adequate water supply is a basic necessity for health of individuals and communities. Sufficient water resources affect human health both directly and indirectly. Every person requires about 2 liters of clean drinking water each day. Water is also needed for many everyday activities, including personal hygiene (i.e. showers, sewage removal), dish washing, and laundry. Water resources are necessary for the success of agriculture and industry (e.g. irrigation, food processing, cooling, and mining). Water resources also affect the health of fisheries, indirectly affecting nutrition and the livelihood of those in the fishing industry. Lastly, adequate water resources are necessary for human recreational activities at lake and rivers.

Processing potable water is energy intensive and thus contributes to air emissions associated with fossil fuel energy combustion. Water conservation efforts, control of water pollution, and restricted use of potable water can all play a part in ensuring a safe and sufficient water supply.

Interpretation and Geographic Equity Analysis

Currently, San Francisco's gross water use is approximately 64.7 million gallons per day (mgd), or 83.4 gallons daily per capita. Approximately 63% of this total is delivered to San Francisco residential customers. The gross per capital water use has slowly declined over the since the early 2000’s; this is primarily due to water efficiency in plumbing.

When examined by zip code, the zip codes with the highest per capita daily residential water consumption include 94102, 94127, 94103, and 94115 – comprising the Tenderloin, Pacific Heights, South of Market, and West of Twin Peaks neighborhoods. The zip codes with the lowest daily per capita consumption include 94110 and 94112, which make up the Mission, Outer Mission, Excelsior, and Oceanview/Merced/Ingleside neighborhoods.

According to the 2010 Urban Water Management Plan, "Single-family units comprise approximately 32 percent of the total households in San Francisco, and use approximately 40 percent of the total water delivered to the residential sector. The remainder of residential water use (60 percent) occurs from multi-family units such as apartments. Due to the moderate climate and the high density housing in San Francisco, water use within the residential sector is used almost entirely indoors. For multi-family units, the average outdoor water use is considered negligible. For single-family residential units, the average, outdoor water use is less than ten percent of single-family residential uses, on average."a


Fiscal year 2013-2014 data was obtained by from the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission for residential use by zip code and total in-City retail sales. Daily per capita use at the zip code level was derived by dividing the average daily residential consumption (gallons per day) by the estimated population in each census defined Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA). Because ZCTAs do not perfectly align with true zip codes, population estimates may be inaccurate. Total per capita daily consumption for San Francisco was calculated using population estimates from the California Department of Finance, in order to be consistent with statewide reporting protocol.


Certain zip codes do not have accurate per capita consumption information and have been omitted from the data.

  • Some zip codes have high rates of housing growth where residential buildings under construction may have a residential water service agreement with the SFPUC but may be using water for construction purposes and have no residential occupancy.
  • Some zip codes, like Treasure Island (94130), have one master meter and cannot be divided into residential and commercial consumption at this time.
  • Some zip codes, like those in the Financial District and downtown areas, do not have enough population or housing to substantiate residential per capita data.

Data Source

Water Use data was obtained from the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission and is presented by SFPUC Fiscal Year (July - June) for 2013-2014. Population estimates are from US Census Bureau.

Map and tables prepared by City and County of San Francisco, Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Section using ArcGIS software.

Map and table data is presented for the county. Detailed information regarding census data, geographic units of analysis, their definitions, and their boundaries can be found in the Indicator Prject at the following links:

Interactive boundaries map

  1. Urban Water Management Plan, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission. 2010.