Descriptive Title: Maximum capacity of licensed child care facilities and proportion of 0-14 year olds

Geographic Unit of Analysis: Census tract and point

Children, 0-14 years old, per licensed child care center or home slot (2012)
NeighborhoodChildren per center or home slot0-23 month olds24 month - 4 year olds5 - 14 year oldsTotal Child Care Pop.Center slotsHome slotsTotal slots
Bayview/Hunter's Point 2.2 920 1,444 4,403 6,768 653 396 1,049
Bernal Heights 4.0 667 874 2,092 3,633 219 180 399
Castro/Upper Market 1.5 310 317 599 1,226 214 8 222
Chinatown 0.4 113 152 513 777 366 82 448
Excelsior 1.9 757 1,123 3,936 5,816 580 302 882
Financial District/South Beach 0.4 167 141 326 634 329 8 337
Glen Park
Golden Gate Park -- 0 0 1 1 0 54 54
Haight Ashbury 1.2 481 504 950 1,936 435 60 495
Hayes Valley
Inner Richmond 1.8 727 978 2,316 4,022 555 147 702
Inner Sunset 2.0 546 630 1,537 2,713 322 48 370
Japantown
Lakeshore 0.9 225 363 1,186 1,774 401 68 469
Lincoln Park
Lone Mountain/USF
Marina 3.1 472 467 779 1,718 153 48 201
McLaren Park
Mission 1.5 1,117 1,324 3,418 5,859 884 216 1,100
Mission Bay
Nob Hill 2.4 217 239 690 1,146 99 32 131
Noe Valley 3.5 577 600 1,200 2,377 171 50 221
North Beach 0.8 150 194 629 973 235 8 243
Oceanview/Merced/Ingleside
Outer Mission 1.1 548 856 2,582 3,987 790 248 1,038
Outer Richmond 1.5 629 863 2,637 4,129 570 166 736
Pacific Heights 1.0 394 417 815 1,626 438 8 446
Portola
Potrero Hill 1.5 369 434 807 1,611 291 30 321
Presidio 0.7 101 154 342 597 217 0 217
Presidio Heights 0.5 222 275 639 1,136 501 0 501
Russian Hill 3.7 250 245 630 1,125 67 60 127
San Francisco 1.5 15,210 19,993 54,761 89,964 12,965 4,035 17,000
Seacliff 2.3 59 93 326 478 40 0 40
South of Market 0.9 411 406 907 1,724 470 40 510
Sunset/Parkside
Tenderloin
Treasure Island 1.2 53 72 291 416 60 0 60
Twin Peaks -- 114 150 293 557 0 0 0
Visitacion Valley 2.1 550 894 2,912 4,356 426 158 584
West of Twin Peaks 5.2 414 750 2,177 3,341 143 78 221
Western Addition 0.9 715 877 2,113 3,705 1,011 180 1,191

Why Is This An Indicator Of Health and Sustainability?

Substantial research demonstrates that accessible high quality childcare positively affects childhood growth, physical development, and physical health, cognitive, behavioral and school outcomes.a,b In the well-known Perry Preschool study, 65% of the children with early childhood education graduated from high school, compared to 45% without the preschool program. By age 40, 76% of the group who went to preschool were employed compared to 62% of the control group. It is estimated that the economic return to society was $17.07 per dollar invested - $12.90 per dollar invested went to the general public and $4.17 per dollar invested went to each participant.b The accessibility of childcare for families with children is dependent on capacity of childcare providers to meet demand.

Interpretation and Geographic Equity Analysis

Child care is provided in many different forms in San Francisco.  This indicator focuses on the provision of licensed child care, or child care centers and family child care home providers that obtain a license from the California Community Care Licensing Division.  Some families choose friends and relatives (license-exempt caregivers) to care for their children, and programs for school age children are often not licensed by the state. This indicator does not include residential 24 hour care, foster care, or babysitting.

In 2012, the neighborhoods with the most spots in licensed child care centers or homes were Western Addition, Outer Sunset, Mission, Bayview, and Outer Mission. During 2010 the neighborhoods with the greatest number of children 0-14 years old were Bayview, Mission, Outer Sunset, Excelsior, and Vistacion Valley. In 2012, there were roughly 5.3 children for every spot in a licensed child care center or home. Neighborhoods with the lowest ratios of 0-14 year olds to child care spots include: Chinatown, Financial District, Presidio Heights, Presidio, and Western Addition, which all have fewer than 3.2 children to a spot. Neighborhoods with the highest child to spot ratios include: Twin Peaks (which has no child care), West of Twin Peaks, Crocker Amazon, Seacliff, Mission Bay, and Noe Valley which all have more than 10 children to a spot.

The neighborhoods with the most spots in child care centers were Western Addition, Mission, Outer Mission, Outer Sunset, and Bayview. The neighborhoods with the most family child care home spots were Outer Sunset, Bayview, Excelsior, Parkside, and Outer Mission.

Methods

The maps above use 2010 Census counts for 0-14 year olds. The addresses of licensed child care centers and homes were geocoded and mapped. Points were sized to correspond to their relative size.

Limitations

While center slots are licensed specific to age groups, family child care licenses allow for mixed age groups.  Licensed FCCHs receive licenses for small and large homes, which can accept 6-8 and 12-14 children respectively. We chose to use the high end of the licensed capacity (small homes with 8 slots and large homes with 14 slots) to demonstrate maximum capacity.  However, FCCHs often have a vacancy rate of 10%, which may be preferred by the provider. Also, some FCCH providers might also care for their own children in the, which reduces the number of slots available. (2007 CCPAC Child Care Needs Assessment; Accessed online on September 11, 2009: http://sfcpac.org/publications-reports/)

SF CCPAC noted that “There is a danger in assuming a ‘slot equals a child.’  While generally this is a useful approach to simplify planning, the reader must be reminded that this does not match what is known about how care is accessed. Not all families using care need the care full time, so many slots may be “shared” by families. Some children attend more than one type of care (i.e. family child care half-day and center preschool half-day). Some providers licensed for 12 children may serve as many as 20 in a week, although, not at the same time. An example of where this could occur would be a family child care provider who stays open during non-traditional hours, including weekend.

A survey of parents conducted by the San Francisco’s Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies found that 71% of parents stated they preferred child care near their home, 11% wanted care on the way to somewhere they were going and 8% wanted care near their place of employment.  Despite high preference to have child care near the home, only 53% currently use a facility in their home zip code.  Location of care was the most important factor for SF parents choosing a program, followed by the program’s affordability, quality and safety respectively. (2007 Child Care Needs Assessment)

CCPAC also found that while most parents initially requested center based care, more parents ended up using home based care. Reasons included lack of awareness about the existence of FCCHs, affordability of FCCHs, and higher vacancy rates in FCCHs.

Data Source

List and Capacity of Childcare Centers from Community Care Licensing Division, California Department of Social Services. Accessed on July 2012: http://www.ccld.ca.gov/docs/ccld_search/ccld_search.aspx.

List and Capacity of Family Childcare Homes from Children’s Council of San Francisco Staff in July 2012.

Population Data Source: 2010 US Census.

Map and table created by San Francisco Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Section using ArcGIS software.

Table data is presented by planning neighborhood. While planning neighborhoods are larger geographic areas than census tracts, census tracts do not always lie completely within a planning neighborhood. SFDPH used ArcGIS software and a dasymetric mapping technique to attribute Census block group data to residential lots. We then assigned residential lots to planning neighborhoods to calculate Census population totals within the neighborhoods.

Detailed information regarding census data, geographic units of analysis, their definitions, and their boundaries can be found at the following links:

Interactive boundaries map

http://sfindicatorproject.org/resources/data_map_methods

  1. Karoly LA. Early Childhood Interventions: Proven Results, Future Promise. RAND Corporation, 2005.
  2. Schweinhart LJ. The High / Scope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 40. The High Scope Press, 2004.