Descriptive Title: Proportion of land area that is zoned for commercial and residential uses
Geographic Unit of Analysis: Zoning district
|Percent of land zoned for residential and commercial uses (2011)|
|Neighborhood||% Residential||% Commercial|
|Financial District/South Beach||9%||83%|
|Golden Gate Park||NA||NA|
|South of Market||44%||20%|
|West of Twin Peaks||83%||3%|
Research has found that neighborhoods with diverse and mixed land uses can create proximity between residences, employment, and goods and services, reducing vehicle trips and miles traveled and increasing active transportation such as walking and biking.a In addition, a 12.2% reduction in odds of being obese was detected with increase in density, mixed use, and street connectivity within 1 km of residential area, i.e., living in a mixed use area with a variety of shops and services is a robust predictor of obesity in urban areas.b Finally, retail development in the context of mixed-use design generates natural public surveillance. Crime reduction and surveillance improves levels of perceived safety.c
The map above shows which parts of the city are zoned for residential, commercial, or other uses. Commercial zoning is the densest in the Financial District, North Beach, Chinatown, and Downtown/Civic Center neighborhoods which all have more than 35% of their land zoned for commercial activity. Most neighborhoods in San Francisco have less than 10% of their land zoned for commercial uses. Neighborhoods with the lowest commercial to residential land ratios include: Seacliff, Twin Peaks, Potrero Hill, Diamond Heights, West of Twin Peaks, Outer/Inner Sunset, Pacific Heights, and Visitacion Valley.
Each zoning category was classified as commercial, residential, or other. Commercial zoning includes: C-2, C-3-G, C-3-O, C-3-O(SD), C-3-R, C-3-S, C-M, CCB, CVR, MB-O, NC-1, NC-2, NC-3, NC-S, NCD, NCT, NCT-1, NCT-2, NCT-3, and SSO zoning categories. Residential zoning includes: CRNC, MUG, MUO, MUR, PM-MU1, PM-MU2, PM-R, RC-3, RC-4, RED, RH-1, RH-1(D), RH-1(S), RH-2, RH-3, RH DTR, RM-1, RM-2, RM-3, RM-4, RSD, RTO, RTO-M, SB-DTR, SLR, SPD, TB DTR, and UMU zoning categories. Zoning districts we shaded on the map according to their commercial/residential/other designation.
To calculate the percent of land in each neighborhood zoned as residential and commercial, each zoning district was assigned to the neighborhood that it fell within. The total number of residential and commercial square feet in each neighborhood was divided by each neighborhood’s total land area in square feet to calculate the percent of land in each category.
Some zoning categories allow both residential and commercial uses. Here, most “mixed use” zoning classifications are considered residential, whereas “neighborhood commercial” (which also permits residential development) is considered commercial. Because this analysis is based on zoning rather than the actual use of the property, we are unable to say what percent of land is actually used for residential or commercial uses. For a more specific zoning map, visit this website: http://www.sf-planning.org/index.aspx?page=1569
Zoning data: San Francisco Planning Department, July 2011. Available at: http://data.sfgov.org/
Map and table prepared by City and County of San Francisco, Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Section using ArcGIS software.
Map and table data are presented by planning neighborhood.
Ewing R, Frank L, Kreutzer R. Understanding the Relationship between Public Health and the Built Environment: A Report to the LEED-ND Core Committee. 2006.
Singapore National Crime Prevention Council. 2003. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Guidebook. Available at http://www.ncpc.gov.sg/pdf/CPTED%20Guidebook.pdf.