Descriptive Title: Residential electricity use per capita

Geographic Unit of Analysis: Zip code

Table 1. San Francisco Residential Electricity Use
Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2013 2014
Total kWh Usage** 1,364,223,361 1,391,462,437 1,402,422,500 1,409,991,142 1,410,257,664 1,418,582,511 1,220,679,880 1,186,970,975
Residential Electriciy Emissions
(Metric tons of CO2)
302,857,586 288,032,724 403,897,680 410,307,422 368,077,250 286,553,667 239,253,256 221,963,572
** kWh is the Kilowatt Hours of electricity usage.                
Table 2. San Francisco Electricity Use by Sector, 2014
  Total kWh Usage % by Sector
Residential 1,186,970,975 29%
Non-Residential 2,904,031,898 71%
Total 4,091,002,873 100%
     
Table 3. Residential per capita electricity use (2014)
Zip Code kWh
San Francisco 1,452
94102 1,439
94103 1,644
94104 3,338
94105 3,784
94107 1,763
94108 1,246
94109 1,589
94110 1,185
94111 1,103
94112 1,070
94114 1,926
94115 1,912
94116 1,301
94117 1,492
94118 1,634
94121 1,512
94122 1,358
94123 1,996
94124 1,155
94127 1,811
94129 --
94130 --
94131 1,865
94132 1,131
94133 1,334
94134 1,158
94158 1,997

Why Is This An Indicator Of Health and Sustainability?

In 2010, 19% of the power generated by Pacific Gas and Electic (PG&E) was from natural gas and 1% was from coal (the remaining energy was produced from a mix of renewable sources, hydroelectric facilities, nuclear, and unspecified sources). Electricity generated from fossil fuels produces air pollution in the form of particulate matter, nitrogen dioxides, volatile organic compounds, and toxic air contaminants. Energy efficient buildings reduce emissions from the products of combustion, which include less particulates and pollutants that can improve health and outdoor air quality. Air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to respiratory disease and deaths from cardio-vascular diseases.a The combustion of fossil fuels also contributes to greenhouse gas emissions which are altering the earth’s atmospheric chemistry and climate. On a carbon-equivalent basis, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions accounted for81%  of U.S. anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2010.b

Climate change threatens health through the potential of more extreme weather events, increased air pollution, limitations on food production, increased water-borne and food-borne illnesses, and increased infectious disease vectors. For the major fossil fuels, the amounts of carbon dioxide produced for each billion Btu (British thermal units) of heat energy extracted are: 208,000 pounds for coal, 164,000 pounds for petroleum products, and 117,000 pounds for natural gas.

The benefits of energy efficiency go beyond environmental sustainability. Energy efficiency can have economic benefits for both residents and property managers by lowering utility bills. Furthermore, energy efficient design and construction techniques can contribute to the long term affordability of housing through lowered energy costs. 

Interpretation and Geographic Equity Analysis

The above map illustrates disaggregated residential (single family and multi-family) electricity use by zip code for 2014. Table 3 represents total per capita residential electricity use for each zip code. Residential electricity use per capita is highest in the dense north eastern zip codes of San Francisco, including 94105, 94104, and 94158. Neighborhoods within these zip codes include: Financial District/South Beach and Mission Bay. The zip codes with the lowest consumption include 94112, 94111, and 94132, which cover the neighborhoods Financial District/South Beach, Oceanview/Merced/Ingleside, Outer Mission, Excelsior, and Lakeshore.

Many factors influence variation in energy usage, such as climate, age of housing (newer housing is often built with electric only utilities), housing density (multifamily housing stays warmer because of heat migration), building design (newer housing has tighter building envelopes), socioeconomic factors, and conservation practices.

Table 1 illustrates the total residential electricity usage and the corresponding CO2 emissions in San Francisco from 2005-2014. Since 2010, there appears to have been a noticeable drop in residential electricity consumption in SF.  Table 2 shows average electricity use by sector. In 2014, 29% of the natural gas is used for residential purposes, while non-residential use accounts for 71%.

Methods

Electricity use by zip code was provided by Pacific Gas & Electric for 2013 and 2014. Total residential use was divided by the estimated population within each zip code to get the “Total Use per Capita.” The “Total Use per Capita” data was then mapped by zip code using ArcGIS software.

Limitations

Zip code data was not provided for zip codes with an insufficient number of residential customers to assure customer anonymity.

Data Source

Electricity usage by zip code provided by Pacific Gas & Electric Company, April 2015.

Map and tables prepared by City and County of San Francisco, Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Section using ArcGIS software.

Map and table data is presented by zip code. Detailed information regarding census data, geographic units of analysis, their definitions, and their boundaries can be found in the Indicator Project at the following links:

Interactive boundaries map

http://sfindicatorproject.org/resources/data_map_methods

  1. American Heart Association. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4419
  2. U.S. EPA. 2012 Draft U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report: Energy. February 2012. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads12/3.%20Energy.pdf. Accessed March 1, 2012.