Descriptive Title: Residential electricity use per capita
Geographic Unit of Analysis: Zip code
|Table 1. San Francisco Residential Electricity Use|
|Total kWh Usage**||1,364,223,361||1,391,462,437||1,402,422,500||1,409,991,142||1,410,257,664||1,418,582,511||1,220,679,880||1,186,970,975|
|Residential Electriciy Emissions
(Metric tons of CO2)
|** kWh is the Kilowatt Hours of electricity usage.|
|Table 2. San Francisco Electricity Use by Sector, 2014|
|Total kWh Usage||% by Sector|
|Table 3. Residential per capita electricity use (2014)|
In 2010, 19% of the power generated by Pacific Gas and Electic (PG&E) was from natural gas and 1% was from coal (the remaining energy was produced from a mix of renewable sources, hydroelectric facilities, nuclear, and unspecified sources). Electricity generated from fossil fuels produces air pollution in the form of particulate matter, nitrogen dioxides, volatile organic compounds, and toxic air contaminants. Energy efficient buildings reduce emissions from the products of combustion, which include less particulates and pollutants that can improve health and outdoor air quality. Air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to respiratory disease and deaths from cardio-vascular diseases.a The combustion of fossil fuels also contributes to greenhouse gas emissions which are altering the earth’s atmospheric chemistry and climate. On a carbon-equivalent basis, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions accounted for81% of U.S. anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2010.b
Climate change threatens health through the potential of more extreme weather events, increased air pollution, limitations on food production, increased water-borne and food-borne illnesses, and increased infectious disease vectors. For the major fossil fuels, the amounts of carbon dioxide produced for each billion Btu (British thermal units) of heat energy extracted are: 208,000 pounds for coal, 164,000 pounds for petroleum products, and 117,000 pounds for natural gas.
The benefits of energy efficiency go beyond environmental sustainability. Energy efficiency can have economic benefits for both residents and property managers by lowering utility bills. Furthermore, energy efficient design and construction techniques can contribute to the long term affordability of housing through lowered energy costs.
The above map illustrates disaggregated residential (single family and multi-family) electricity use by zip code for 2014. Table 3 represents total per capita residential electricity use for each zip code. Residential electricity use per capita is highest in the dense north eastern zip codes of San Francisco, including 94105, 94104, and 94158. Neighborhoods within these zip codes include: Financial District/South Beach and Mission Bay. The zip codes with the lowest consumption include 94112, 94111, and 94132, which cover the neighborhoods Financial District/South Beach, Oceanview/Merced/Ingleside, Outer Mission, Excelsior, and Lakeshore.
Many factors influence variation in energy usage, such as climate, age of housing (newer housing is often built with electric only utilities), housing density (multifamily housing stays warmer because of heat migration), building design (newer housing has tighter building envelopes), socioeconomic factors, and conservation practices.
Table 1 illustrates the total residential electricity usage and the corresponding CO2 emissions in San Francisco from 2005-2014. Since 2010, there appears to have been a noticeable drop in residential electricity consumption in SF. Table 2 shows average electricity use by sector. In 2014, 29% of the natural gas is used for residential purposes, while non-residential use accounts for 71%.
Electricity use by zip code was provided by Pacific Gas & Electric for 2013 and 2014. Total residential use was divided by the estimated population within each zip code to get the “Total Use per Capita.” The “Total Use per Capita” data was then mapped by zip code using ArcGIS software.
Zip code data was not provided for zip codes with an insufficient number of residential customers to assure customer anonymity.
Electricity usage by zip code provided by Pacific Gas & Electric Company, April 2015.
Map and tables prepared by City and County of San Francisco, Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Section using ArcGIS software.
Map and table data is presented by zip code. Detailed information regarding census data, geographic units of analysis, their definitions, and their boundaries can be found in the Indicator Project at the following links:
U.S. EPA. 2012 Draft U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report: Energy. February 2012. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads12/3.%20Energy.pdf. Accessed March 1, 2012.