Descriptive Title: Occupational non-fatal injury rate by industry sector and employment size

Geographic Unit of Analysis: Metropolitan region

Incidence rates  of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses by industry sector and employment size, 2010        
Industry sector Annual Average Employment for SF, San Mateo & Marin Region Non-Fatal Incidence Rates for All California Workers, by Industry
All establishments Establishment employment size (number of workers)
1 to 10 11 to 49 50 to 249 250 to 999 1,000 or more
2008 2018
All industries incl. state and local govt 1,118,200 1,193,700 4.2 1.8 3.5 4.8 4.7 5.2
PRIVATE INDUSTRY     3.7 1.8 3.3 4.5 4.1 4
Goods-producing n/a n/a 3.7 2.8 4 4.4 3.6 1.9
Natural resources and mining n/a n/a 3.9 0.3 4.1 4.5 3.4 4.3
Construction 44,300 48,200 4.2 4 4.4 4.5 2.9 1.2
Manufacturing 42,100 42,400 3.4 1.5 3.6 4.3 3.8 1.5
Service-providing     3.7 1.6 3.2 4.6 4.3 4.7
Trade, transportation, and utilities 160,500 165,000 4.5 -- 3.9 5.4 5.9 4.7
Wholesale trade 26,800 27,000 3.3 -- 2.6 4.3 4 2.5
Retail trade 94,000 97,900 4.7 -- 4.3 5.4 6.1 3.6
Transportation and warehousing 34,600 34,400 6.4 -- 4.5 7.4 8.1 6.5
Utilities 5,200 5,700 3.6 ( * ) 3.2 5.9 3.8 --
Information 40,800 44,900 2.2 ( * ) -- 3.2 2.1 1.6
Financial activities 86,800 86,000 1.8 -- -- 2.4 1.8 1.6
Finance and insurance 65,600 64,800 1.3 -- -- 1.8 1.4 1.6
Real estate and rental and leasing 21,200 21,200 2.9 -- -- 3.8 4 --
Professional and business services 210,100 230,800 2.1 -- 2.3 2.7 2.1 1.7
Professional, scientific, & technical svcs 127,900 147,000 1.2 -- -- -- 1.2 1.1
Management of companies&enterprises 24,700 22,600 2.7 -- 3.3 3.2 1.8 2.4
Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services 57,500 61,200 3.6 -- 3 4.5 3.9 2.7
Education and health services 107,400 117,000 5.4 -- 4.2 6 7.5 6.7
Educational services** 26,000 29,300 2.3 -- 1.6 2.5 2.7 2.4
Health care and social assistance 81,400 87,700 5.9 -- 4.6 6.6 8.1 7.8
Leisure and hospitality 126,800 139,400 4.4 -- 3.3 5.7 6.7 6.8
Arts, entertainment, and recreation 19,400 22,000 4.6 -- 2.8 4.3 5.9 5.8
Accommodation and food services 107,400 117,400 4.3 -- 3.3 5.9 7.3 --
Other services 39,400 41,900 3.2 -- 2.6 4.4 4 5
STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT 119,100 127,200 7.2 7.5 10.4 7.5 7.4 6.6
State government 35,600 37,800 5.9 ( * ) 3.7 9.3 3.6 6
Local government 83,500 89,400 7.5 7.6 10.4 7.5 7.6 7.1
*  Data too small to be displayed.
** = Educational Services employment estimate is for private schools only 
NOTE: Because of rounding, components may not add to totals. Dash indicates data do not meet publication guidelines. Table does not include farms, goods producing industry including agriculture, forestry, mining and fishing due to the very small numbers employed in SF in these industries.

Why Is This An Indicator Of Health and Sustainability?

Occupational injuries represent adverse health outcomes that are preventable with proper engineering, equipment, and training.

Interpretation and Geographic Equity Analysis

The table presents the average number of workers employed in 2008 and the projected number of workers in 2018 by major industry sector, and the incidence rates of non-fatal occupational injuries and illnesses by industry sector and employment size.  Incidence rates represent the number of non-fatal injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers in California.  Employment projections are for the San Francisco metropolitan region, which includes San Francisco, San Mateo and Marin counties.  Incidence rates and employment projections specifically for San Francisco are not available.

As of 2010, the industry sectors with the highest overall rates of non-fata l occupational injuries and illnesses included: local and state government, transportation and warehousing, and health care and social assistance.  In general, injury and illness rates for state and local government were double and sometimes triple the rates for private industry, depending upon establishment size.  Among private service-producing industries, the highest non-fatal injury and illness rates were among transportation and warehousing, health care and social assistance, retail trade, and arts, entertainment and recreation.  The lowest injury and illness rates were in the professional, scientific and technical services, and finance and insurance industries. 

In 2010, 302 workers died on the job from an occupational injury in California.  Roughly one third of the fatalities (90 deaths) resulted from transportation accidents, roughly one quarter (73 deaths) resulted from assaults or violent acts, one fifth (59 deaths) resulted from falls.  The other deaths were caused by contact with objects and equipment (43), exposure to harmful substances or environments (29), and fires and explosions (10).   The total number of deaths represents a significant decrease since Cal/OSHA began counting deaths in 1992, when 644 individuals died, and a decrease of over 100 deaths since 2008.  For more information, visit: http://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/cfoi/CFOI_2010/cfoi2010.htm and http://www.bls.gov/ro9/oshcalifornia.pdf 

According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, outreach, education and compliance assistance related to worker safety can substantially reduce the number of workplace injuries and fatalities. Despite a doubling of the number of workers and worksites in the United States between 1971 to 2006 (from 58 million workers at 3.5 million worksites to 115+ million at 7.2 million sites), OSHA has helped cut workplace fatalities by more than 60 percent and occupational injury and illness rates by 40 percent. Preventative measures, such as proper safety equipment and procedures, can dramatically improve the health and safety of workers, particularly in high-risk industries.

Methods

Industry classifications are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Manual, 2007 Edition. Data were derived from a longer list of selected industries. Bolded rows represent major industrial classes, while non-bolded, italicized rows represent sub-categories within those industry categories.  In accordance with the NAICS Classification, there are many industries within the sub-categories, however they were not included for brevity/readability.

Incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers and were calculated as:  (N/EH) x 200,000 where

          N                      = number of injuries and illnesses                                                                      

          EH                   = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year                          

          200,000           = base for 100 equivalent full-time workers

                                      (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year).           

Incidence rates presented are for all workers in California.  Data from “Goods-Producing” Industries excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees.  Data for mining is obtained from the Mine Health Safety Administration and data for railroad workers is from the Federal Railroad Administration in the Department of Transportation.  Additional  details about the injury and illness data is available at: http://www.dir.ca.gov/dlsr/Injuries/2010/Menu.htm

For information about how the CA EDD projects industry employment estimates, visit:

http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/Content.asp?pageid=1042

Limitations

Rates of occupational injury are a means of comparing the number of injuries in a given industrial classification to another.  However, rates of occupational injury can differ within the same industrial classification, depending upon the size of the establishment, as measured by establishment employment size and by the types of safety practices utilized by the establishment. 

The general type and severity of injuries differ significantly from job class to job class. For example, someone doing mostly administrative work in the construction industry would likely have less occupational risk of injury than someone who is regularly constructing houses or buildings within the same industry.  Pain severity, cost and length of recovery, and associated time off from work vary substantially by individual as well.  

The injuries and illnesses reported are employer reported accounts of non-fatal occupational injuries and illnesses that resulted in days off from work.  Not all employers are required to submit injury and illness records, and not all injuries and illnesses result in days off from work.  Cumulative and longer term injuries that create pain and discomfort – e.g.  repetitive stress injuries and back pain - but do not require immediate days off from work are likely undercounted in these estimates.   Individuals employed during a short term and contractual basis, often classified as independent contractors, are also likely to be undercounted. 

Due to a lack of sufficient data, occupational injury rates are not available for most establishments with 10 or fewer employees.  Smaller size establishments may be less likely to be aware of and to utilize personal protective equipment and practices that promote occupational health and safety.   

Data Source

Occupational Injury Rates: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2010 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, in cooperation with California Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA).

Average Annual Employment Estimates:   California Employment Development Department, Projections of Employment by Industry and Occupation. Available at: http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/Content.asp?pageid=145

Tables and calculations developed by SFDPH.