Descriptive Title: Neighborhood completeness indicator for key retail services
Geographic Unit of Analysis: Point
|Neighborhood completeness indicator for key retail services (2008)|
|Neighborhood||Square Miles||Auto Repair Shop||Bank and Credit Union||Beauty/Barber Shop||Bike Shop||Dry Cleaner||Eating Establishments||Gym||Hardware Store||Healthy Retail Food||Laundromat||Pharmacy||Video Rental/Movie Theater|
|Financial District/South Beach||0.7||9||104||123||0||15||473||33||5||2||9||3||5|
|Golden Gate Park||1.7||0||0||1||1||1||3||0||0||1||0||0||0|
|South of Market||2.1||52||12||27||5||10||240||16||6||3||10||12||4|
|West of Twin Peaks||1.9||4||6||27||0||4||46||4||1||5||5||6||5|
Being within walking distance of neighborhood goods and services promotes physical activity, reduces vehicle trips and miles traveled, and increases neighborhood cohesion and safety.a By reducing vehicle trips and miles traveled, dense neighborhoods with diverse and mixed land uses can also reduce air and noise pollution, which subsequently impacts associated respiratory and noise-related health conditions. According to the US Green Building Council, research has shown that "living in a mixed-use environment within walking distance of shops and services results in increased walking and biking, which improve human cardiovascular and respiratory health and reduce the risk of hypertension and obesity."b The presence of a supermarket in a neighborhood predicts higher fruit and vegetable consumption and a reduced prevalence of overweight and obesity.c,d A recent study (2007) in New York revealed that low-income non-white populations are at a disadvantage when trying to access daily goods and services. There is a stronger relationship for black populations than Latino populations but both populations have less access.e Physical activity among children is higher when they have access to sidewalks, desirable destinations to walk to, and when children face fewer traffic hazards.f Finally, a review of reviews commissioned by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence in London found that having a mix of retail within walking distance is correlated with increased walking and physical activity.f
The HDMT neighborhood completeness indicator is presented as a profile of key public and retail services and goods available to San Francisco residents. We are currently working on a new indicator methodology that will allow us to present scores over a contiuous surface for the accessibility of public and retail services. In the meantime, we have presented a map for walkability which was prepared in 2009 by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. This map combines public and retail services and weights each service based on the frequency with which residents are believed to use them. More information on the methods used to creat this map can be found in the Methods section.
Given the diversity of services in most San Francisco neighborhoods, neighborhood completeness has been divided into three separate maps for each neighborhood: public services, retail services, and food availability for ease of viewing. These maps are intended to be examined comprehensively when assessing neighborhood completeness and proximity to goods and services. The other maps are located at Indicator PI.7.a.
The Walkability Index map illustrates that the Northeastern quadrant of San Francisco has a greater density of retail and public services. This map, however, is strongly influenced by the density of retail, dining, and entertainment services in Downtown and the neighborhoods that surround it. Click on the neighborhood name in the table to view the retail service and food availability maps. It is important to remember that completeness does not reflect any measure of quality of services.
Included in this indicator are twelve retail services, necessary for meeting the daily needs of neighborhood residents. These key retail services include auto repair shops, banks and credit unions, beauty and barber shops, bike shops, dry cleaners, eating establishments, gyms, hardware stores, laundromats, pharmacies, retail food markets, and video rental stores and movie theaters. Each neighborhood map displays all key retail services in the Planning neighborhood boundary and the key retail services in adjacent neighborhoods. The neighborhood table includes the count of each key retail service; total counts of all key retail services; and the population density and area of each neighborhood.
Retail service data was combined into a database and validated by visiting three neighborhoods and visually confirming the presence of those retail services within ¼ mile radius around an intersection for each neighborhood. From our retail service database, 20.45% of the services were not found during our neighborhood site validations. These retail services either had gone out of business, was incorrectly categorized by the original data source, or existed elsewhere and had an incorrect address. In Addition, an average of ten new key retail services per validation area were identified that should have been included in our database. These new individual services fell into seven of the twelve key retail services for this indicator.
A large majority of data was obtained from a commercially available database (Dun and Bradstreet, 2007). Duplicates, probable miscodes, and non-San Francisco services were identified and deleted from the database. Data accuracy was also supplemented by cross-checking with Internet phone books, mapping websites, and personal knowledge of Department of Public Health staff.
Food availability for the indicator is defined by the number of eating establishments and retail food markets in each neighborhood. Data for eating establishments and retail food markets were obtained from the Environmental Health Section of the San Francisco Department of Public Health, which regularly inspect all food establishments in San Francisco to ensure they meet City health and safety code requirements. Eating establishments were defined as fast food outlets, restaurants, and take-out establishments. The following are definitions for each of the three eating establishments presented in the food availability maps:
Bars, catering companies, push-carts, institutional cafeterias, and private clubs were not included in the retail service database. Retail food markets were defined as supermarkets, grocery stores, and produce stands. Retail bakeries, candy stores, smoke shops, theaters, and stores primarily selling other goods but may include some specialty food items were not included. Numerous food markets may also sell take-out and prepared food ready for consumption; however, they are counted as retail food markets, rather than eating establishments.
For the Walkability Index map, the following methodology is outlined in the MTC Snapshot methodology documentaiton (http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/snapshot/Appx%20C-Detailed%20Methodology.pdf):
"This map shows the density of essential destinations in five categories: 1. Religious, Educational Institutions and Libraries 2. Health Services 3. Other Services 4. Parks 5. Retail, Dining, and Entertainment. The categories were taken from the Transportation 2030 Equity Analysis report which compared the number of businesses by communities of concern against the remainder of Bay Area communities, among other variations of these data. The establishments within these categories were selected from the 2006 CA Employment Development Department database of all businesses, as well as TeleAtlas Parks, and Landmarks (Religious Institutions, Educational Institutions, and Libraries).
Each Bay Area intersection is ranked by the total number of destinations within a network distance of one mile. The number of destinations that are within one-half mile of an intersection is weighted more heavily than the number of destinations that are between one-half and one mile. Because people access different types of destinations with varied frequency, the types of destinations are also weighted by category: Parks 15%; Retail, Dining, and Entertainment 40%; Health Services 10%; Other Services 20%; Religious, Educational Institutions, and Libraries 15%.
These intersection-based data are interpolated into a continuous surface of 100m grid cells using an inverse distance weighting technique. This method evaluates groups of intersections and derives a weighted average value based on the inverse of the distance from grid cells on the map to intersections within one mile."
This map shows the density of essential destinations in five categories: 1. Religious, Educational Institutions and Libraries 2. Health Services 3. Other Services 4. Parks 5. Retail, Dining, and Entertainment. The categories were taken from the Transportation 2030 Equity Analysis report which compared the number of businesses by communities of concern against the remainder of Bay Area communities, among other variations of these data. The establishments within these categories were selected from the 2006 CA Employment Development Department database of all businesses, as well as TeleAtlas Parks, and Landmarks (Religious Institutions, Educational Institutions, and Libraries).
Although geographic distance is just one dimension of accessibility, proximity to services does promote increased walking and biking, reduced daily vehicle trips and miles traveled, increased possibilities for healthful and meaningful work, and increased interactions among neighbors and others on the street. While this indicator demonstrates the geographic distribution of key retail services within a neighborhood, two residents of the same neighborhood may have very different access to any service, due to the size and topography of the neighborhood, available transportation options, cost of services, hours of operation, and language and cultural accessibility.
Walkability map data from the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, prepared in 2009 using 2006 data, received April 2012.
Location of auto repair shops, banks and credit unions, beauty or barber shops, bike shops, dry cleaners, gyms, hardware stores, laundromats, and video stores or movie theaters from Dun & Bradstreet, 2007.
Location of eating establishments (restaurants) from the San Francisco Department of Public Health, 2007.
Healthy reatil food dataset was purchased from ESRI (Redlands, CA), a private vendor, in Spring 2009. It included all businesses for San Francisco. From this dataset, the specific food retailers were selected for inclusion of this indicator. InfoUSA collects information on approximately 12 million private and public US companies. Individual businesses are located by address geocoding—not all will have an exact location. The ESRI geocoder integrates an address-based approach with more than forty million residential and commercial U.S. address records from the Tele Atlas Address Points database.
Additional locations for gyms from WhitePages.com, 2008. Accessed online at http://www.WhitePages.com on February 1, 2008.
Location of pharmacies from the State of California Department of Consumer Affairs, 2008. Accessed online at http://www2.dca.ca.gov/pls/wllpub/wllqryna$lcev2.startup?p_qte_code=PHX&p_qte_pgm_code=7200 on January 24, 2008.
Map and table created by San Francisco Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Section using ArcGIS software.
Map data is presented at the level of the census tract.
Purciel, Marnie. Spatial Equity in New York City Neighborhoods. A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation and The Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University. May 2007.
Bauman A, Bull F. Environmental Correlates of Physical Activity and Walking in Adults and Children: A Review of Reviews. London: National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence; 2007.